Abstract Overview

Principles of a high-flow space-saving waste water system allowing an in-pipe integrated ventilation in the entire building piping: Abdullah Öngören, Geberit International AG

The number of high-rise buildings increases worldwide rapidly as the technologies in building and construction industry advances. Besides the new buildings requires substantially more complicated wastewater installations. The architects and contractors need new drainage system concepts in planning such buildings since this highly competitive industry demands cost saving compact systems which are installable with substantially less space. The available systems like single stack Geberit Sovent or ventilated double stack systems needs to be upgraded to deliver higher capacities in the same sizes of existing systems. Newly designed systems obviously lead to construction of technically and commercially better optimised buildings. It is the aim of this study to develop a new system which meets the requirements mentioned above. The newly designed system in this study is expected to cause minimal additional installation costs but yields higher functioning capacity which leads to substantial material and labour-saving advantages. \r\n\r\nIn this study, a series of new fittings have to be designed in order to extend the high capacity functioning of the new concept to complicated wastewater installations including bottom turn bend and off-set configurations in the buildings. The individual technical properties of the new genuinely designed fittings are described. The role of each fitting in generating a continuous column of air in the piping from the roof down to sewage line is explained in detail. It is shown that these special fittings provide an effective pressure compensation in the whole discharge line preventing the surge to a substantial extend. \r\n\r\nThe findings of this study are based substantially on the results of experimental investigations which have been conducted in a high tower test-stand. The tower allows the installation of a ~30m high vertical discharge stack combined with offsetted connections at each floor equipped with flow supplies up to maximum allowable design levels. The flow characteristics and pressure distributions along the stack are measured in the newly designed system. Besides, the effect of solid material, e.g. toilet paper, on the performance of the new system has also been investigated. The technical characteristics of the new system will be presented as compared to the relevant systems already available in the market today.

Facilities Management System for Hotel -Type Buildings Using IDEF: Alec Sewell, Department of Construction Engineering of the Escola Politécnica, University of São Paulo

Humans use the natural resources of the planet, both for their survival and for their comfort. However, the heavy use of these resources results in their scarcity, generating social and economic problems and compromising society’s development. The management of facilities is a critical issue, especially in hotel-type buildings. In this case, there is usually not as much concern by the users about the consumption of resources compared to their place of residence. On that basis, the aim of this paper is the use of the IDEF-0 tool to develop a sustainable facility management system focused on utilities for hotel-type buildings in operation. The development process was made through a bibliographic survey; data collection of water and energy consumption tendencies; data processing; and the proposition of a management system distinguished in processes; and an analysis of the results. The end result consists of a facility management system that discusses, from a qualitative and quantitative point of view, environmental, social, and technological aspects; promoting systemic and continuous action on building systems through structured and didactic IDEF-0 graphical representations. It is concluded that through the application of processes detailed in the facility management system, specific actions, with the goal of increasing the system’s efficiency, are made possible and can result in significant economic, social and environmental impact. Therefore, once integrated within the system, the potential of these actions for resource conservation can be much greater. The effective contribution of this paper is the creation of a tool for the management of facilities with a wide application range, capable of reducing excessive consumption and expenses, improving the performance of building systems, educating users towards the good use of available resources, and promoting a more sustainable operation without diminishing the quality of the final product.\r\n\r\nKeywords: facilities; utilities; management; hotel; water; energy; IDEF0\r\n

Application of the Wistort method for the calculation of Probable Simultaneous Flow Rates for compliance with the National Construction Code: Alexander Zeller, The Australian Building Codes Board

The Australian Building Codes Board (ABCB) is proposing to include a version of the Wistort method of calculating Probable Simultaneous Flow Rates (PSFR) in the next iteration of the National Construction Code (NCC). This will allow practitioners to determine PSFRs of supply water systems and to size pipework accordingly. The method is performance-based and allows PSFRs to be calculated for an individual system given any combination of fixture types, number of fixtures, fixture flowrates and probability of fixture usage.The prescriptive standard for the design of water supply systems in buildings in Australia is AS/NZS 3500.1, which is based on Hunter’s method of using fixture units to calculate PSFR. Hunter’s method is premised on the calculation of water demand at the 99th percentile of likely demand, however unlike the Wistort method the assumed values of flowrates and probability of use of fixtures are fixed. In reality, different buildings will vary in their fixture flowrates and probabilities of use, and therefore systems are designed at flowrates that can be higher or lower than the 99th percentile of actual demand. The result is that supply water pipework in Australia is frequently oversized, resulting in sub-optimal cost and design outcomes.The ABCB proposes to include two limitations on the application of the Wistort method. Firstly, the design flowrate must be calculated at or above the 99th percentile of likely demand. Secondly, the probability of fixture use must be calculated during the two hour period of expected maximum usage in order to mitigate possible skewing effects in buildings that are intermittently used.nInclusion of the Wistort method as a referenced methodology in the NCC will allow designers to more accurately calculate PSFRs and size pipework accordingly, allowing improved design outcomes in water supply systems in Australia.

Study of unit of design water supply amounts and potential evaluation of rainwater utilization in small or middle-scale office building: Atsuya Akasaka, Kogakuin University

In recent years in Japan, water consumption in office buildings is decreasing due to popularization of water-saving devices. Unit of design water supply amounts used for the conclusion of water supply capacity is different from water consumption in actual buildings.\r\nIn the reference book, office’s unit of design water supply amounts is 60-100 L/(person?day) in our country. In addition to this, in the case of the use of water-saving devices, unit design water supply amounts is 40-60 L/(person?day) that have been newly established. \r\nUnit of design water supply amounts is highly influenced by duration of water usage and frequency of water outlet usage. For that reason, Daily water consumption is calculated based on the person’s acts by water load calculation developed by Kosaka. The actual conditions of water consumption is investigated by Kurosawa and so on. \r\nAlthough previous researches about unit of design water supply amounts has been carried out, we should understand relationship between unit of design water supply amounts and duration of water usage or frequency of water outlet usage.\r\nIn this report, in reference to water load calculation2), we study about relation between unit design water supply amounts and frequency of water outlet usage separately for flush toilet, urinal and faucet by actual measurement data measured by main pipe in small or middle-scale office building.\r\nMoreover, we supposed rainwater utilization to water consumption for washing flush toilet and urinal in the building. And we calculated fungible ratio of potable water using precipitation measured by Japan meteorological agency and water consumption for washing flush toilet and urinal that calculated with frequency of water outlet usage.

Difficulties encountered during the evaluation of a Legionella contamination level in a sanitary installation : Bart Bleys, BBRI

Monitoring of Legionella bacteria is important for public health reasons in order to identify the environmental sources which can pose a risk of legionellosis, such as hot and cold water distribution systems and associated equipment. Different international standards describe how to take water samples and which technique can be used to analyse these water samples. Worst case scenario’s for sampling indicate that the first liter, without a flush, should be taken to evaluate the risk. During our research we evaluated different sampling protocols. The full- scale test facility at BBRI, contaminated with Legionella pneumophila bacteria served as case-study.Samples were taken on a regular base from the sampling valves (Depart & Return) and from the faucets (shower or kitchen faucet). The sampling ball valves on the depart and return were mounted on T- pieces. This means that a small water volume (~4 ml) from the circulation loop is trapped in the connection, presenting a small “dead zone” suitable for biofilm development. The study included “first liter” samples, taken at once (volume 1liter), as well as fractionised water samples (collecting the first 200 ml water separately from the 800 ml water). Also biofilm measurements were included to evaluate the contamination level of the circulation loop.This article will point out the influence of the sampling protocol on the interpretation of the ‘Legionella contamination level ‘within a sanitary installation. The study indicates the importance of a well described sampling strategy and protocol, in compliance with the information needed for a risk assessment.

Green walls: water consumption & quantity and quality of drain water: Bart Bleys, BBRI

Nowadays, more and more buildings with green walls appear in the street scene. To allow plants to grow on a wall, essentially two different system types are used. Within the soil-bound system, the so-called Green Facades, plants root in het open ground at the base of the wall and grow on it whether or not supported by a climbing aid. Within wall-bound systems, so called Living Wall Systems, plants root in a substrate that is maintained on the wall in one or another way (flower box, geotextile, module, …). Most often, plants in living wall systems depend on an irrigation and fertilization system for their water and nutritional elements.Although many manufactures are active on the market, each with their own system, still many questions remain on the actual successful and durable implementation of these systems. One of these questions is about their real water consumption and the amount and quality of drain water (excess of irrigation water coming out of the system) and what can still be done with it.To answer this question, a test setup, consisting of nine different living wall systems available on the market, was built. It was equipped with an irrigation and fertigation system allowing an individual program for each wall. A flow logger allowed us to monitor the water consumption of each wall individually. Also, the drain water coming from each wall was collected for quantification and quality analysis. Within this analysis part, several parameters were looked at which each have their importance for either storage, reuse or evacuation to the sewer system of this drain water. Within our presentation, the results of a first monitoring campaign will be presented.

Drainage capacity of cork boards applied as base layers on living walls: Prof Carla Pimentel-Rodrigues, ANQIP

Introduction and aims: The urban growth is the cause of numerous environmental problems, and today it is recognized the importance of adding green areas to the urban environment as an essential contribution to ensure sustainability cities. Green roofs and vertical greening systems (VGSs) are considered as very suitable strategies to mitigate these negative effects. As regards VGSs, green facades and living walls are recent solutions that are beginning to become popular, but which normally require watering and drainage. The objective of this paper is to present the results of an experimental study to evaluate the drainage capacity of insulation cork boards, with a view to their use as a base layer in plant supports for living walls. Method: In the paper are characterized various types of cork boards in the market for insulation and are presented the tests carried out to evaluate the drainage capacity of these boards, applied as base layers of plant supports in living walls. Results and conclusion: The experimental studies have allowed the determination of the amount of water flowing through the material, the time required for a certain amount of water to flow out, the peak of the water flow and the amount of water retained in the material. It has been found that the cork boards are suitable for application in living walls if grooves are cut in the boards Contributions: The paper demonstrates the feasibility of applying insulation cork boards as base layers for plant support in living walls, as well as the conditions to enable such use.Keywords water drainage, vertical greenery systems, living walls, living facades, cork boards Acknowledgments The authors are grateful for the financial support provided by the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology (FCT) under the Project (POCI-01-0145-FEDER-016852), co-funded by the Operational Program for Competitiveness and Internationalization (POCI) of Portugal 2020 with the support of the European Regional Development Fund (FEDER).

The new European Unified Label for water and energy efficiency of products: Prof Carla Pimentel-Rodrigues, ANQIP

Hydric stress and security of water supply are important concerns across the world. Climate change and the increasing need for environmental protection, natural resources preservation and efficient use, have made water availability and the existence of sustainable standards in water consumption a concern for all. In Europe, European Commission drivers for the efficiency of water-using products (WuP) include Eco design approaches, Ecolabel and Green Public Procurement (GPP) but these criteria are focused on the energy efficient of taps and showers and have had limited acceptance by consumers. Method: Many national initiatives have been developed over the past 10 to 15 years to address the efficiency of water-using products, of which the Swiss and Swedish energy labels together with the European Water Label and the Portuguese ANQIP label decided to join together to form a unified label for water-using products. Results and conclusion: Taking the view that the EU consumer today lacks consistent information on the performance and water consumption of these basic products, European and National Trade Bodies and existing National Schemes, representing many hundreds of manufacturers, have developed a simple and harmonized water labelling Scheme – the Unified Water Label. This Scheme applies to products that use water and consider also the associated energy for water heating. According to the European Commission, encouraging the replacement of all standard household appliances (taps, toilets, showers, bathtubs, washing machines, dishwashers, products for external use, etc.) with efficient water products will result in an overall reduction of annual domestic water consumption up to 35% for taps, 11% for showers and associated energy up to 30% by 2030

The issues and application of same floor drain system in the building of social housing: Chao Jung Lee, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Department of Architecture, Taiwan, R.O.C.

The social housing policy is implemented by Taiwan government recently with the goal to complete 200,000 public housing in eight years. Under the situation that social housing is determined for rent and with public duty for the life cycle maintenance, thus it is important for the government to plan and design well in the earlier stage of construction for water supply and drainage system. Plumbing system is an important part of residential facilities. The rationality of its design greatly affects its replacement and maintenance in the building life cycle. The construction life cycle of building is longer than that of the water supply and drainage equipment. Hence, it inevitably needs to be repaired and maintained during the life cycle of the building. Domestic construction usually put the drainage plumbing system under the floor and caused great problems for the maintenance and retrofitting work during the building life cycle. This study would simulate the renewal of the plumbing system in its life cycle. This study would also compare the cost of traditional construction with that of same floor drain practice. The carbon dioxide emissions between the maintenance stage and the construction stage is also concluded. The issues would include the work periods, materials and the use of the construction methods. As the results, the feasibility of same floor drain would be proved and concluded as application in the building of social housing.

Optimal operation model of rainwater reuse and detention mechanism for building raft foundation: Prof Cheng Li Cheng, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology

According to the relevant research and regulation in Taiwan, most constructions have incorporated building raft foundation into the flood detention spaces for evaluation to comply with the present regulations. However, due to the fact that the principles of flood detention and rainwater use operations are in conflict with each other, it is necessary to consider the distribution of the dry season and the rainy season throughout the year from the site location. Based on the literature, this study summarizes and classifies rainwater storage and detention pond merge design system, simulates the rainwater recycling system, calculates the cumulative amount of rainwater in the rainwater storage pool by using the cumulative formula, formulates the building raft foundation simulation operation mode according to the rainwater collecting area and the optimal rainwater storage volume. With regional changes in rainfall, achieves the effective use of the purpose of the detention pond and rainwater reuse, as well as assessing the water saving benefits of the various models for different building types. This research would summarize the results of the optimal operation model, the effectiveness of rainwater replacement can be improved through the increase of rain collection area and storage volume. In addition, it can be effectively used of the rainwater recycling strategies for urban buildings by utilizing the raft foundation to store rainwater and flood detention, to reduce the urban water crisis due to floods and drought.

The hydrology and biodiversity characteristics of an experimental raingarden at RBGE in Scotland: Dr David Kelly, Heriot-Watt University

In recent years, the Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh (RBGE) have witnessed changing weather patterns that reflect how climate change is impacting Scotland. Longer periods of dry weather, followed by heavy downpours of rain, have proved particularly problematic in terms of maintaining plant health and avoiding localised flooding issues. To cope with these challenges, an experimental raingarden (a shallow planted basin) has been created at one of the areas of the garden most prone to waterlogging and flooding. Raingardens offer a sustainable solution to flood mitigation by mimicking natural rainwater retention and infiltration characteristics, whilst also providing multiple benefits related to biodiversity, ecology, amenity, recreation, and education value. This paper reports on the preliminary hydrological modelling of the raingarden and surrounding area, including details of the engineered soils used to enhance rainwater infiltration rates within the raingarden to reduce runoff. Details are also provided on the biodiversity of the raingarden and, in particular, the selection of native and non-native plants able to tolerate occasional flooding that are being trialled. Finally, a short discussion of the planned long-term monitoring of the raingarden will be presented. The preliminary hydrological modelling of the raingarden, together with its planned long-term monitoring are helpful for understanding and planning future site management strategies for coping with an unpredictable and changing climate, and ensuring uninterrupted provision of the important public amenity at RBGE. Keywords Climate change, flooding, raingarden, biodiversity, hydrological modelling.

How much water does that building need?: Mr David Steblina, Wood and Grieve Engineers part of Stantec

This discussion will cover the considerations required to design a fully functional hot and cold water system for buildings consisting of multiple stratum and ownership zones. Of the over 20,000 residential developments the Author has been responsible to design over the last 10 years, there are lessons to be learnt on water supply management. In multi-zoned buildings covering residential, hotel and commercial areas the system dynamics is subjected to peak flows dependent on usage and demand. The role of the engineer is to provide a compliant and competent cost effective system (without over design). There is a fine line between under designing the functionality of the hot and cold water system and providing an efficient maintenance free system that supplies the intended demand. The discussion will cover hotel, residential and commercial demand and supply. The presentation will consist of power point colour slides and photo graphs complete with live case histories. This discussion is very relevant to the Industry in their desire to construct high rise tall buildings around the world.

Study on Force-Feed and Gravity Combined Drainage System Corresponding to Conversion of Business Building: Dr Guangzheng Wu, Kanto Gakuin Unversity

Currently, in Japan, methods for effectively using building stock are being rigorously examined, and conversion of existing buildings, as well as renovation thereof, is attracting much attention. Construction design with consideration of conversion requires a method that allows flexible plumbing to create space for toilets, basins, etc., and a “force-feed drainage system” is one such method which is attracting interest. In this drainage system, a force-feed pump is connected to a sanitary fixture, and wastewater can be discharged through a small-diameter drainage pipe without gradient restriction. Even in the case where some floors have not been laid with drainage pipes underneath, smooth drainage is ensured by combining the force-feed drainage system with gravity-type horizontal drain branches that receive wastewater from upper floors. This also realises the conversion of a target space to a plumbing space for a kitchen, a toilet, etc. In this paper, based on the assumption that said system is installed to an existing drainage stack system, the drainage capacity of an experimental stack system and the drainage capacity of the existing stack system combined with a force-feed drainage type toilet system are compared, and possible influence on the drainage capacity in practical use is discussed.

Examination of “net Zero Water Building” evaluation method in Japan: Prof Hiroyuki Kose, Toyo University

Water Environment Management Committee of the Architectural Institute of Japan has developed the results of the activities of the Subcommittee on the quantitative evaluation of resources and energy saving in the water environment, which was active from fiscal 2015 to fiscal 2018. We will establish the “Zero Water Evaluation Methodology Subcommittee” with a plan for four years, and examine the applicability of Net Zero Water Building promoted by the US Department of Energy in Japan. This study reports the results of the previous subcommittee, and discusses the issues to be considered for the ‚ÄúNet Zero Water Building‚Äù evaluation method that will lead in the future.The US Net Zero Water Building Strategy consists of water conservation and efficiency improvement, alternative water use (rainwater and reuse water utilization), water returned (treated wastewater on-site returned to original water source, and stormwater infiltrated to the original water source through green infrastructure). In Japan, too, these factors are being promoted as elements, and while laws are being developed, there are fundamental restrictions on the use of miscellaneous water and the infiltration of on-site drainage. On the other hand, in addition to very severe conditions such as typhoons, heavy rains, snowfalls and intense heat in weather conditions, geotechnical disasters such as earthquakes and eruptions are often encountered, and there is a high possibility that water supply and sewerage as infrastructure will cease for a long time. In such an emergency, it is necessary to secure water at the building or district level, and it is also necessary to evaluate the system that can cope with these.\r\n In order to consider these methods, it is necessary to consider from both aspects of performance evaluation such as ZEB defined by the Society of Air Conditioning and Sanitary Engineering of Japan parallel with the arrangement and scoring of the conditions found in LEED in the United States. These problems are shown in this study.

Investigation of electronic bidet usage in Chinese homes, and comparisons with Japanese usage: A/Prof Kanako Toyosada, FUKUOKA WOMEN’S UNIVERSITY

The electronic bidet was developed in Japan, however, it was exported toChina by Japanese companies, and started to be installed mainly in public facilities such as hotels and airports, and came to be manufactured and sold by Chinese companies as well. In residential homes, installation is increasing mainly for high income households, and the spread is 80.2% in Japan, while in China it is in the early stages with a penetration rate less than 1%. However, living standards have increased in China in recent years, and the penetration rate of Beijing and Shanghai has reached 6% and 8% respectively between 2015 and 2016. In this study, we clarified the conditions of usage of electronic bidets in residences in China through a survey, while also comparing hygiene awareness levels in Japan and China. The results showed that both in China and Japan the ratio of people who did not use an electronic bidet, even though it was installed, was about 40%, and also a tendency was seen that women were not using it more. It was found that the usage rate lowered with age in Japan, while in China age had no impact. There was a significant difference observed between countries regarding the reason for not using the electronic bidet at home: most often “not needed” was stated in Japan, but in China it was “sanitary concern”. Regarding the frequency of use of the electronic bidet at home, about 70% of Japanese men and about 60% of Chinese men answered “every time after defecation”, showing a similar trend. It was also found that 20% of Japanese women use it every time during menstruation, compared with 6% of Chinese women, indicating Chinese women use the bidet less during menstruation

Flow and Seal Loss Characteristics of Siphonic Drainage System with Tail trap : Kanako Yanagisawa, Meiji University

The siphonic drainage system drives the siphonage generated by full flowing through the pipe. Since this drainage system has a strong carrying force and it is possible to install a long distance piping with a small diameter and horizontal pipe, it can be installed costly and freely in piping design. Normally, a trap needed for drainage system is installed in the inflow part near the fixture drain. However, in this drainage system, seal break often occurs due to the influence of the siphonic negative pressure generated by the siphonage. An air admittance valve is used as a method for preventing seal break but we propose a tail trap installed in the tail part. \r\nIn this study, we considered the seal loss characteristics of siphonic drainage system with improved tail trap by experiments.

Evaluation Index for power Saving Performance of Booster Pump in Water Supply System: Prof Kyosuke Sakaue, Meiji University

In Japan, the elevated tank system and the booster pump system the using water receiving tan, but from 1995 the direct connected booster ump system without using the water receiving tank was approved. When selecting a water supply system, the power saving performance of the water supply pump is important. However, a performance indicator of power consumption related to power saving performance has not been established.\r\nIn this study, measurement data of water supply amount and power consumption in different water supply methods before and after the water supply method change construction of apartment house were analyzed, and unit water supply amount was proposed as power saving evaluation index of water supply pump. And the power saving performance of the water supply system was evaluated using unit water-power consumption, and the applicability was verified.

A Case Study of Corrosion on Type 304 Stainless Steel Pipes of a Hot Water Supply System Supplied with Reverse Osmosis Permeate Water in Japan: Liangliang Zhai, SANKEN SETSUBI KOGYO CO.,LTD.

In Japan, type 304 stainless steel is used as the main piping material of central hot water supply systems. When pipe weldments are inferior in quality, or chloride ion concentration of hot water is high, leakage caused by piping corrosion often occurs. Japan Stainless Steel Association (JSSA) has issued a piping manual which listed welding methods and a water quality guideline of stainless steel pipes for hot water systems. Accordingly, reported leakage cases of hot water systems with stainless steel pipes decreased. However, in buildings where groundwater is treated with reverse osmosis (RO) systems for hot water systems, even if the permeate water quality meets the JSSA guideline, hot water leakage caused by piping corrosion still occurs. In this paper, a typical case of piping corrosion related to RO water is studied, in order to find out whether the current guideline is complete enough to measure treated ground water quality for hot water systems or not. In these cases the leakage was directly caused by pitting corrosion and crevice corrosion of type 304 stainless steel pipes and fittings. Residual chlorine concentration hardly decreases because of the low organic concentration of the RO water. This is considered to have caused increase of the spontaneous potential of the stainless steel pipes and the corrosion. In conclusion, it is necessary to carefully control the concentration of chloride ion and residual chlorine of the RO water. Meanwhile, attention should be paid to temperature settings of the hot water. Recent years, demand for groundwater has been continuously growing in Japan, because more and more firms are using groundwater as a spare water source for Business Continuity Plan (BCP). Besides, raising temperature is an effective measure to restrain the growth of Legionella spp. Given the circumstances, an increase of corrosion rate relate to the RO water is foreseeable. Thus it is necessary to make a more clarified guideline of water quality for hot water systems.

Quantification for food wastes of university canteens: Ling Tim Wong, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University

There is increasing challenge on food waste management around the world. In order to reduce on road transportation cost of food waste collection, ordinary food wastes are dewatered in order to reduce its mass and volume. The first building food waste collection system with dewatering facility in Asia is to be installed in a university campus that separate waste water will be discharged into the building drainage system. In this paper, composition of typical food wastes generated from a canteen is characterized with its type, mass, volume and associated water content was measured experimentally. Diet habit of 72 customers was studied. The results showed that food waste generated from typical canteens could be reduced by 50% in mass and volume with dewatering operation. Data of this study is useful to estimate drainage demands of dewatering facilities for food waste collection in buildings.

Methodological approaches to framework development for the prediction of simultaneous water flow : Prof Lynne Jack, Heriot Watt University (Malaysia)

As new models emerge that enable us to better predict the simultaneous water demand in buildings, it is clear that different approaches have been taken in the development of representative frameworks. Being able to predict this water demand is important as current models that are generally based on the application of probability theory, are known to overestimate the flow. This results in oversizing of water supply systems, booster pumps and distribution pipework, and incurs unnecessary energy loss. The paper finds that models for the prediction of simultaneous flow generally fall in to the categories of probabilistic, empirical and stochastic. Stochastic models rely on the application of the Monte Carlo theory but differ in terms of the drivers used to define the load. However, models developed globally all differ and to varying degrees, meaning that consistency in framework development for the same purpose cannot be guaranteed. This paper discusses the various approaches adopted and compares the relative merits of each. It also discusses whether the theoretical framework should differ depending on application; generally broken down into residential and non-residential. Comparisons are also made with similar techniques adopted for applications other than water system sizing.

Permeable pavements: determination of retention volumes using artificial neural networks and heat flow analogy models : Marina Ilha, School of Civil Engineering, Architecture and Urban Design - University of Campinas

Models currently used for dimensioning stormwater infiltration systems are based in software developed for agricultural fields or large urban areas, like large hydrographic basins, which can result in improper dimensioning of those systems. This paper shows the results of the use of numerical modeling methods developed for the determination of stormwater retention volume of on-lot drainage systems, more specifically, permeable pavements. One of these models was developed using Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) and the other using the analogy between water flow in soil and the heat flow in solids (HFM). Both models were developed and validated by data collected during the operation of experimental permeable pavements, installed in a research area. The permeable pavements were tested with simulation flows between 3.3 and 12.6 m³/h, to simulate low and high intensity rains. The prediction of retention volumes modeled using ANN resulted in differences between 1,84 and 6,13%, whereas values obtained using the HFM showed adjustments between 1,05 and 5,03%, which indicates the adherence of both methods for dimensioning permeable pavements.

Development and Spread of Plumbing Toilet System Corresponding to Global Aging Population: MASAYUKI OTSUKA, Kanto Gakuin University

It is said that the population of over-65s relative to the world population (aging rate) will rapidly increase within the next half century. In such circumstances, burdens on carers who look after the cared-for everyday, become ever greater as it becomes harder and harder for the cared-for to manage through the day. Therefore, there is a demand for the development and practical application of a facility system which can lighten the tasks of both parties. In particular, toileting is a most frequent daily activity, and it creates a huge burden for both the cared-for and the carer. That is, for the cared-for, it is hard work to walk to the bathroom, and it is therefore more desirable to have a toilet by the bedroom or at the bedside, and for the carer, it is hard work to assist the cared-for with toileting and disposing of waste after using a portable toilet in the bedroom, not to mention tackling bad odour and ensuring hygiene. Moreover, the ability to toilet independently is very important in terms of dignity. \r\nIn order to ease these conditions, there are hopes for the development and spread of a “plumbing toilet system” which is easy to install in a bedroom of an apartment house or at the bedside in a nursing home and has a force-feed pump capable of smoothly discharging waste through a small-diameter pipe into a drainage stack. This report aims to evaluate the influence of this technology on the drainage capacity of a drainage system prior to introducing to a high-rise apartment house and to verify the effectiveness of said technology.


The refugee camp Zaatari was created as a result of more than seven years long civil war in Syria. The camp is rapidly evolving from the crowd of tents and caravans, into a real city. Syrian families are abundant in closely related, many children were born in the camp and it is the only home they know. Therefore Zaatari is also called the City of the children. There was a need for improved public infrastructure, which is not intended only for the basic needs of survival, but quality accommodation. For a permanent stay in the better future of the inhabitants, a better quality architecture is needed, no longer a temporary crisis one. It is necessary to regulate public space, build a new school in and large family homes. Our vision is to create a permanent, sustainable architecture that covers the needs of the inhabitants in the appropriate culture frame and serve the needs of the users, moreover to protect against the climatic conditions of the desert’s edge, in which the camp stands. Spatial data and analyses of camp rapid development and expansion were studied through time series of satellite images provided by UNISAT with UNITAR-United Nations Institute for Training and Research as their source from 2012 until nowadays. Rainwater from whole building area will be collected and stored in the basement basin for watering greenery and maintain climate in the building through passive cooling. Gray water is collected, processed and reused for toilet flushing and watering greenery too.

The performance assessment of heat pump integrated with chilled water wall in different controlled parameters: A/Prof Meng-Chieh, Jeffrey Lee, Natonal Taichung University of Science and Technology

The heat pump integrated with chilled wall has developed for air cooling, dehumidifying, air cleaning, and water heating, as we presented in 2018 CIB062 symposium. It was followed the fix flow rate to change the indoor hygrothermal environment. This study tries to change the falling speed by different flow rate in 300 L/h, 400 L/h, and 500 L/h to assess the performance of indoor hygrothermal environment and indoor air quality. It also considers the water heating performance while the heat pump operating. The results present the flow rate reaches to 400 L/h is the optima conditions for heat pump integrated with chilled water wall to influence the cooling, dehumidifying, air cleaning and water heating.

Building Drainage Design Codes for use in Tall Buildings.: Dr Michael Gormley, Heriot Watt University

National codes provide essential guidance for the design of building drainage and vent systems (BDS) which, in the main, ensure the basic objectives of preventing odour ingress and cross-transmission of disease through water-trap seal retention. However, there are no specific design guides for the BDS design for tall buildings, and so the same codes and methods are used for a 168 floor building as would be used for a 14-floor building. The historical development of codes and standards (including the interpretation of the governing fluid mechanics principles and the degree of safety built in) mean that many design differences exist between them. For example, the UK code accepts trap-seal depletion of 25%, i.e. 37.5 mm minimum retention for a 50 mm trap seal, whilst the Australian and New Zealand code accepts a minimum retention of 25 mm. Furthermore, the recommended interval between cross-vents linking the wet stack to the vent stack differs considerably between codes: one-floor interval (UK and Australian/ New Zealand codes); five-floor interval (US code – UPC); and 10-floor interval (US code – IPC). The codes also differ in the size and scale of the systems they cover and most make no allowance for the specific building-drainage design requirements of tall buildings on the scale of super- or mega-tall buildings. An investigation of the development of these codes and their implication for future use is explored in this paper.

Modelling Transient Air and Water Flows in Building Drainage systems of Tall Buildings: Dr Michael Gormley, Heriot Watt University

The development of high-rise buildings is now at an unprecedented rate, with their number and scale rapidly and dramatically changing the landscape of global cities. The creation of these complex vertical communities poses major operational challenges for the systems relied upon for occupant safety and the responsible management of water resources. The growing need for vertical population distribution is pushing the limits of air and water management systems (AWMS) to the point where current design codes and system components are no longer suitable. In addition to this, current models for the simulation and assessment of system design are being pushed to their operational limits, where empirically derived mathematical boundary conditions are expected to function way in excess of their original intention. Central to prediction and simulation of transient air and water flows in building drainage systems in tall buildings is the understanding of the role played by representations of steady and unsteady friction within the system. This paper discusses the wider area of modelling air and water flows in drainage systems of tall buildings and proposes a methodology to express frictional losses throughout the system to increase confidence in the models and reduce inaccuracies in prediction results.

A Basic Study on the Relationship between the Carrying Performance by drainage load of low volumes flow rate: NORIHIRO HONGO, Yamagata College of Institute of Technology

In recent years, while using less water to flush toilets has been encouraged, there have been concerns about degradation of carrying performance of horizontal drainpipes and stagnant wastewater in the pipes. In this experimental study, horizontal drainpipes having pipe diameters of 75A, 100A, 125A and 150A are used, and different factors; pipe gradient, flow rate and waste type, are applied in various conditions to the pipes, while small amounts of water are drained through the pipes to deliberately degrade the carrying performance thereof. The study aims to identify the influence of these factors on the carrying performance and to acquire some basic knowledge from the experiment results, which is conducive to the design of horizontal drainpipes. \r\nUsing a hypothetical case where a water-saving toilet was connected to a drainage pipe system, and clean water and wastewater were drained, separately at low volumes and low flow rates, this report clarified the flow-velocity relationship between the clean water and the wastewater as well as clarifying the drainage conditions that keep wastewater flowing again after the wastewater stagnated in the horizontal drainpipe. Moreover, by applying some hardest piping conditions to affect the carrying performance, the influence of two particular factors; low drainage flow rate and pipe gradient, on the carrying performance was also examined.

The Development of ISO Standard PC 31600 - Water Efficient Products: Peter DeMarco, IAPMO

Consumer water efficiency labeling programs such as the Australian WELS program and the U.S. EPA’s WaterSense program, have been proven to save trillions of liters of potable water and billions of dollars for consumers in reduced water utility bills. While these programs have been developed to work effectively in more economically advanced countries with strong supporting standards and government agencies, the water saving benefits from these programs have not been available to developing countries and countries that do not yet have a water efficiency labeling program. In 2017, Standards Australia issued a proposal to the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) to develop an international standard that would work to “encourage the development and marketing of water efficient products, enable consumers to clearly identify and purchase the best products within the industry, and positively influence manufacturing to improve the performance of their products through consumer power and information.” Importantly, the standard, which will be developed as ISO PC-31600, will provide countries that do not have existing standards and consumer water efficiency labelling programs to apply an international standard that will save many more trillion liters of water globally.The scope of ISO PC-316 will include the establishment of water efficiency flow rates and consumption values along with key performance test requirements for plumbing products and appliances, specifically: showerheads and mixing valves, faucets/taps, flow control devices, toilets (all types), urinals, flushometer valves, dishwashers for domestic use, clothes washers for domestic use, and the dryer function of combination washer/dryers, where water is used to dry washing loads. It is expected that an important outcome from the ISO 316 technical committee’s work will be the establishment of suggested universal rating/and or labelling requirements based on a set of water consumption tests. Meeting the requirements of the standard will allow manufacturers to apply an internationally recognized label to their products, identifying them as being both high performing and water efficient. The standard will also be designed to work seamlessly with existing national-based consumer labeling programs already in place, such as the Australian WELS program and the U.S. EPA’s WaterSense program.

Reduce the risk of circulated hot water returning at a temperature which promotes pathogen growth: Robert Hardgrove, Viega Pty Ltd

Introduction and aims: Even when the best design and installation practices have been adopted for the circulation of potable hot water under certain conditions, the pipework system can still be a breeding ground for opportunistic waterborne pathogens in the form of Bacteria, Viruses, Protozoa & Helminths, which can be passed onto humans via ingestion (drinking), inhalation/aspiration (aerosol) and contact (bathing). These pathogens’ ideal living conditions are at temperatures, which are similar to our body temperature and ideal shower and bath temperature. When designing a traditional hot water circulation system, the supply water typically exits from the boiler at 60°C. For the returning water, the design parameter is to keep ?t at 5°C, which is calculated at the point of return to the boiler (when the water enters the return line) or when the returning water re-enters the boiler. If ?t is 5°C, at the point of return, it will be 55°C but will continue to drop as it returns to the boiler. This means that the water will be in the critical pathogen growth range. If the system is designed with the water returning to the boiler at ?t =5°C, there is still a risk that the water drops below 55°C when there is demand for hot water from the connected fixtures, or the design calculation didn’t quite match the reality. Method: With the one-pipe principal of Smartloop in-liner technology, flow and return lines are combined into one pipe. A separate pipe for the circulation water is not required. The Viega Smartloop in-liner system provides a way of maintaining the temperature of the returning water by preheating it. This is achieved by transferring energy from the supply line to the returning in-liner, which is a pipe within a pipe. Results: Water in the whole Smartloop in-liner system is kept above 55°C, the lowest water temperature at the point of return. The returning water will continue to receive energy from the supply line even when the fixtures are in use and the returning water is barely moving. This also allows thermostatic valves to be utilised, so when there are multiple risers, the inactive risers can draw more circulating water, while all the water in the system stays above 55°C. Other benefits of this type of design are installation costs, space savings by only having one pipe and energy savings due to the 30-40% lower heat radiation losses.

A Proposal for a Simplified Method of Predicting the Carrying Performance of Water-saving Toilets: Ryota Oba, Graduate School of Engineering Kanto Gakuin University, Japan

At present in Japan, a simplified method is yet to be established for designing horizontal drainage pipes (with relevance of lengths and elbows in mind) that considers the carrying performance as well as the drainability of horizontal drainage pipe systems, with water-saving toilets connected thereto, for detached houses. Therefore, plumbing is currently carried out using subjective methods, including determining pipe lengths and the number of elbows, while concerns about stagnation of or blockage by waste and toilet paper in pipes are not addressed. \r\nConsidering this background, this study ultimately aims to propose a simplified yet practical method of predicting carrying performance. In this paper, first, two systems; one comprising a 6m straight pipe, and one comprising a 6m pipe with five horizontal elbows arranged at equal intervals, were used to clarify the basic flow characteristics of wastewater, and necessary data about discharge characteristics and carrying performance were collected to be used in calculations. The calculation results were then used for quantitatively measuring the degradation of drainage performance affected by the total pipe length and the elbow shape, and a simplified method of predicting discharge characteristics and carrying performance was examined.

Verification of accuracy of the dynamic calculation method for cold and hot water supply loads by each fixture using model and unit model as a whole in an office building: Saburo Murakawa, Hiroshima University

It has been pointed out that the estimated values by the conventional calculation methods of water consumption show considerably larger than the actual demands in buildings because of the progress of water saving, including problems of the existing methods. Therefore, a method for accurately estimating the loads is required in the optimal design of the cold and hot water supply systems.\r\nThe authors have developed a new dynamic calculation method of water supply loads in the buildings that can estimate a series of design values from instantaneous maximum flow rate to water consumption per hour and day. The developed computer program is called MSWC: Mutakawa’s Simulation for Water Consumption, which has been presented several times at international symposium of the CIB-W062. The calculation models are proposed not only as each fixture using behavior of people but also as one unit for a whole in the building. As for the method, at present, the verification of accuracy such as comparison with actual measurement values has been made by plumbing designers in Japan. \r\nIn this paper, the authors show the calculation results of water supply loads in the toilet rooms and the hot water service rooms in an office building called TE. The calculation results based on each fixture using models by the employees in these rooms are compared with the measurement results recorded at 1-second intervals, and both results are shown to be closely similar. As for the building, the authors propose unit model treated as a whole building, and the calculation results are compared with the hourly and daily measurement values. Also, the calculated instantaneous maximum flow rates are compared between each fixture using model and unit model, and usefulness of the unit model is shown.

The prediction method of supply water temperature for energy simulation of hot water supply system, Part3 A comparison between annual results of measurement and calculation of a building in Kanagawa University: Dr Shizuo Iwamoto, Kanagawa University

Introduction and aims: Supply water temperature is one of the important input conditions to evaluate and predict the energy consumption1). In a small building such as detached houses city-pressure water supply system is employed and water supply temperature is equal to city water temperature. Break tank is used in general and supply water temperature will be equal to the tank water temperature that is different from city water temperature. Therefore, this study focused on city water and supply water temperature in a building and shows measurement and calculation results of supply water temperature in buildings. Method: This paper will describe the followings.(1) Summaries of measurements in three buildings by BEMS in Kanagawa University. Water temperatures, air temperatures around pumps and/or break tanks and pump running data are measured every minute. Water consumption volume of each building is recorded visually every month. This measurement continues now and measurement results from January to December 2018 are handled in this paper.(2) The calculation method1) of city water and break tanks water temperature is used. And several calculation methods of city water temperature such as using soil temperature2) or  outside air temperature are considered in this paper. 3A comparison between measurement and calculation results of water temperature is described.Results and conclusion: The mean absolute temperature difference between measurement and calculation results in C building in Kanagawa University is described in this paper.  The calculation results of city water temperature are investigated by several calculation methods.  This paper shows that city water and supply water calculation methods are available for estimate of supply water temperature in hot water supply system. Contributions: This study was supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grant Number JP17K06682. Reference: 1) S.Iwamoto et al., The prediction method of supply water temperature for energy simulation of hot water supply system, The Proceedings of CIB-W062 Symposium, 2017.8.  2) E.J.M. Blokker and E.J.P. Pieterse-Quirijns, Modeling temperature in the drinking water distribution system, Journal of American Water Works Association, 2013.\r\n\r\nKeyword\r\nHot water supply system; energy saving; city water temperature; tank water temperature.

Understanding of Discharge Characteristics and Carrying Performance of a Water-saving Toilet with a Movable Discharge Mechanism When Used During an Emergency: SHOGO SATO, Kanto Gakuin University,

Japan was struck by the Great East Japan Earthquake in March 2011 and the Kumamoto Earthquakes in April 2016. The affected areas suffered devastating damage not only to the buildings and structures but also to the infrastructures including the water and sewerage systems which were disrupted from functioning as lifelines for a long period of time. The local residents had the inconvenience of being unable to use their toilets in the usual manner; every time they used a toilet, they had to manually flush away waste and toilet paper with a bucket of water, and this crippled everyday life. Meanwhile, trouble with drainage pipes and sewage pipes caused by blockage and stagnant wastewater was identified. With this background in mind, this study focuses on a toilet equipped with a movable discharge mechanism which uses an emergency power source, such as a battery, to ensure steady discharge even during an emergency, and aims to identify the discharge characteristics and carrying performance of the toilet. The study also aims to clarify, from the findings, the effectiveness of the toilet with a movable discharge mechanism which can be used during an emergency

The Construction Design Using Rain Water and Potential Effective Use of Rain Water: Tamio Nakano, Shizuoka University of Art and Culture

In Japan, “the law about promotion of use of rain water” was enforced as a measure to a climate change in recent years and global saving resources. In the public building, furnishing using rain water became indispensable. In the future, the duty of equipment using rain water will be expected also in a private building. From now on, it is necessary to consider introduction in the stage of a plan and a design in a building about use of rain water.\r\n\r\nGenerally, the rain water of a building is promptly discharged from the inside of a building to the exterior of a building, and is promptly discharged from the inside of a site to the exterior of a site. However, the load to a sewer pipe is being expanded under the influence of the latest abnormal weather, guerrilla downpours, etc. Therefore, the measure which stores rain water into the pit of a building or a site, and the measure which controls the outflow of rain water are performed. About the rain water of a building or a city, it has been a subject to aim at conversion of the way of thinking.\r\n\r\nThe subject and possibility of use of rain water in a building and a city were considered from a facility design person’s engineering viewpoint, and the design designer’s viewpoint of the design. It aims at proposing processing of rain water, not only reuse but the design of rain water, and potential practical use of rain water. Furthermore, in Japan, the construction which utilized rain water, and the construction which utilized the energy of rain water are introduced.

Stochastic simulation model of water demand in residential buildings: Tiago Ferreira, University of Paulo

Over the years, researchers have been conducting studies to investigate the water consumption profile in buildings, which contribute to the knowledge regarding the correct sizing of the building hydraulic systems. In context of the methods for characterization of requests, the routines commonly used to obtain the project flows were mostly proposed in mid-20th-century. These models need to be revised and adapted to nowadays water conservation reality. In recent years, some studies have proposed simulation models with application focus in water distribution systems, due to the random and temporal behavior of the requests in this type of system. In this study, a stochastic simulation model of water demand in residential buildings has been proposed, which contemplated the behavioral modeling of users and their interaction with the system, in order to improve the design process of water distribution systems. For such, the theoretical bases of previously- proposed models for the identification of significant aspects for the construction of a new model were revised, which merged the behavioral modeling of users and the hydraulic system. Different simulations – with several different types of showers installed in the apartments Рwere made. When comparing the flows obtained by the simulation and the Brazilian Standard Method, in all components of the system, the reduction of the project flow varied between 4% and 61%. In terms of material consumption, the reduction was between 25% and 63%.

Designing legionella-safe houses and apartments: W.G. (Walter) van der Schee, TVVL

Preventing undesired heating of drinking water is a constant point of attention in the residential con-struction. If pipes are concealed in the screed, there is a good chance that the drinking water pipes will cross the heating pipes. Especially when the drinking water stagnate in the pipeline, a so-called hot spot is created. At that location the temperature of the drinking water can exceed a temperature of 25 °C, which increases the chance of the growth of legionella and other bacteria.

Legionella, hotspots

2 Publication ISSO-SBR-811

Publication ISSO-SBR-811 pays attention to concepts to prevent hot spots and offers solutions for common situations where hot spots can occur. The publication provides practical solutions for all parties involved in the construction of new homes and apartments.

ISSO-SBR-811 distinguishes three solution directions.
• Cool strips in the screed
• Cool strips above the ceiling
• Cool surfaces in construction floor and screed

3 Contents of the presentation

The presentation considers:
• An explanation of the approach to design legionella safe houses and apartments.
• An explanation of the three solution directions.
• The requirements for each member of in the design team.
• The role for each member in the design team.
• Solutions to install and construct legionella safe houses and apartments.
• Tables with the minimum distance between the drinking water pipes and heating pipes

Presentation of the author
Walter van der Schee BSc is an employee of Croonwolter&dros based in Amersfoort the Netherlands. He is responsible for mechanical and plumbing design and construc-tion in commercial buildings.

As a member of the Dutch Technical Association for Building Installations (TVVL), he is one of the experts consulting for Plumbing technologies.

Quality assessment of environmental hygiene and health of indoor bathroom: Prof Wan-Ju Liao, China University of Technology, Department of Interior Design

The high humidity environment in Taiwan is closely related to human health issues, therefore, humidity level control is an important aspect in the creation of a healthy and comfortable indoor environment. As most people in Taiwan have neglected this issue, it has led to the growth of many bacteria in the bathroom which is the most humid indoor environment. This is hazardous to human health and has caused people who live in this environment to suffer from long-term allergies and illnesses. This study will establish a Bathroom Healthy Quality (BHQ) Evaluation System to assess the healthy quality of the indoor residential bathroom. The review will focus on environmental factors like openings for ventilation of the bathroom, equipment, regular maintenance cleaning, etc. and develop an evaluation form to evaluate the indoor bathroom. Improvement can be carried out for items with low ratings after the evaluation to improve the indoor environmental health index and to minimize the growth of bacteria in the bathroom that is hazardous to human health. This study serves as a basis and a real case review to establish survey data on the current state of the bathroom environment in northern Taiwan.

Experimental and numerical study of aerosol generation rates for showerheads: Dr YANG ZHOU, City University of Hong Kong

Aerosolization of water from discharging water appliances provides a transmission medium for Legionnaires’ disease. The quantity of aerosolized droplets influences the infection of Legionnaires’ disease. This study investigates the aerosol generation rates of four sample showerheads experimentally in a mechanically ventilated test chamber, assisted by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations. The results show that aerosol mass generation rate decreases with the showerhead resistance factor but increases with the water supply pressure, nozzle area ratio, flow rate, spray jet velocity, momentum and force. There is no significant correlation between aerosol mass generation rate and water spray uniformity (p>0.05, t-test). Furthermore, the aerosol mass generation rates and aerosol particle generation rates determined for the sample showerheads are in the ranges of 1.42×10–5 to 5.52×10–5 gs–1 and 0.35×106 to 1.35×106 particles s–1 respectively.

Modelling design flow rates for cascade water supply systems in super high-rise residential buildings: Dr YANG ZHOU, City University of Hong Kong

Super high-rise buildings are common nowadays around the world, especially in cities with high population density and limited development area, e.g. Hong Kong. In order to pump water to the high level of super high-rise buildings, cascade water supply system is usually used. Currently, cascade water supply systems are mainly designed based on practical experiences or requirements in existing standards/guidelines that in fact not specifically for super high-rise buildings, and systematic studies about cascade water supply system design are still limited in the literature. This study proposes mathematical models and uses Monte Carlo simulations to evaluate the design flow rate of a typical cascade water supply system that fed various appliances including showerheads, wash basins, kitchen sinks and washing machines in a super high-rise residential building in Hong Kong. Graphs that showed the correlations between the inflow rate in the up-feed pipe and tank storage volume were obtained. In practical application, while tank storage volume was confirmed, the design flow rate of the cascade water supply system can be determined from these graphs. The proposed mathematical models can also be applied to evaluate the design flow rate of cascade water supply systems in other types of super high-rise buildings (e.g. office, commercial buildings) as well as with the changes of water demand pattern in the models.

Study of the concentration of DEHP plasticizer solving into water by UPVC supply pipes under thermal environment : YU JIA YUE, National Taichung University of Science and Technology

Water quality involved with the human health in the building. Many researchers focused on the water quality control, especially in biological, chemicals, and heavy metals, but few research in plasticizer. The materials of plumbing equipment are considered without harmful compounds for directly drinking water in some countries. It also only allows metal pipes for hot water supply in Taiwan, but no limitation for cool water supply pipes. Most stainless water tanks are installed on the roof and connect with UPVC pipes for gravity water supply, but the water temperature is around 55C after half day exposure under the strong sunshine. The high water temperature causes the DEHP plasticizer by UPVC pipes solving into water to impact the human health. This study tries to find the concentration of DEHP plasticizer solving into water by UPVC supply pipes under thermal environment. Sample the steady water from different length and width UPVC pipe from 1 to 14 days in different pipes, and detect the concentration of plasticizer in the water by liquid chromatography / mass spectrometer (LC/MS) for each day. The results present the concentration trends for the different condition of UPVC pipes, and show the health risk exposure for the wrong materials of water supply pipes.

The application and efficiency of wall purification system in building: Yu-Fang Chen, )National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Department of Architecture, Taiwan, R.O.C

On the issue of green buildings and sustainable environment, the benefits of green-wall applied to building exterior have been recognized to climate adaptation, mitigate urban heat island effects, increase greening, biodiversity and reduction of energy for air conditional cooling. As the combination of green-wall and constructed wetland, the application of natural purification mechanism to process domestic water has been proved. However, the prototype of purification green-wall system(PGWS) is for purpose of experimental water purification, and the proportion of the planting groove area on the facade of the green-wall is vertical, the green area insufficiency is the critical issue. This study evaluates the water-saving benefits of purifying green-wall in various types of buildings. In the limited installation space, explore how to increase the efficiency of water purification, and adjust planting groove unit to increase the green coverage proportion of green-wall and purification benefits in unit space area. The prototype of the purification green-wall system (PGWS) is divided and based on open building theory. It is divided into a support system and infill system. Systematically, standardized and modularized concept design the infilling system components, and proposed model would verify the purification efficiency of the different infilling sections. The green coverage ratio and purification efficiency of the purifying green-wall are improved in unit area, and the convenience of vegetation and medium replacement is increased. The impact of setting location, method, and media, planting types on purification benefits would be conducted in the future.

Fact-finding investigation of Toilet Usage in High-rise Office Buildings and Examination of Drainage Load Calculation Data: YUDAI MOTOMURA, Takenaka Corporation

Currently, in Japan, amounts of water for flushing toilets in newly-built and existing office buildings have been gradually reduced by more than half from 13.0 L to 6.0 L. Meanwhile, this has raised an issue with the steady flow rate methods, drainage load calculation methods, specified by the current SHASE-S206 Plumbing Code, because the unit data required for calculations, such as fixture discharge amounts and average fixture discharge amounts, are too large and no longer compatible with the current designs. In addition, the occupancy time of toilet booths and the interval of average fixture discharge are changing along with the change in usage of toilets, and this is considered to have some influence in appropriately determining the number of fixtures. \r\nIn this investigation, the optimal number of fixtures is first discussed by examining the occupancy time of toilet booths, the interval of average fixture discharge, etc., which are important factors in carrying out a drainage load calculation that is made based on the appropriately determined number of fixtures and a drainage stack for a toilet system to be installed in an actual high-rise office building. The findings are then considered together with the reduction of amounts of flush water in order to identify how the drainage load in the stack is affected. The results of the investigation are eventually taken into account to review, from an international perspective, drainage load calculations that consider factors, such as the current usage trend of toilets and the adaptation of water-saving toilets, and are contributed to developing new suggestions.